Chemical Education Journal (CEJ), Vol. 7, No. 2 /Registration No. 719/Received March 11, 2003.
URL = http://www.juen.ac.jp/scien/cssj/cejrnlE.html
Physics & Chemistry Department, Faculty of Education "Damanhour", Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Email: dralaae@yahoo.com
Summary
Introduction
Discussion
References
Summary
New form of the periodic table of the elements is given in this
paper. This form can be seen as two amphitheater pyramids facing
each other. The cubes that meet are selements (interior) then
the pelements then delements and the felements at last (exterior).
The table can be represented by X, Y and Zaxes, where the Zaxis
gives the number of the period that the element occupies. The
table can be modeled by colored cubes helping in introducing the
periodic table to the pupils early in the primary education.
Introduction
No one denies the importance of the periodic table of the elements
in all the chemistry aspects, as it is one of the most powerful
science symbols. It enables one to expect and predict most of
the main characteristics of the elements, it is always found inside
every laboratory and teaching rooms as well as in every factory
and companies of chemical application. Nothing in other branches
of science is of its widespread existence.
The idea of the arrangement of the elements in a periodic system
has begun at the last two centuries [1]. During that time the
periodic table has faced a lot of debates, adjustments and replacements
to be suitable to accommodate every new element discovered. This
is simply because the periodicity means the loops of the properties
of the elements.
The periodic table was formally born in 1868 by the hands of the
Russian Scientist "Dmitrii Mendeleev" who made his first
table of 63 elements known write then. The elements were ordered
by their atomic weights. That table predicted accurately other
undiscovered elements.
Before 1868, there were some trials by different scientists to
arrange the elements like "Humphry Davy 1812", "Johon
Dobereiner 1829", "Newlands 1864", and "Meyer
1868". Meyer's table resembles Mendeleev's table but it published
later in 1870. In 1913 Broek suggested ordering for the elements
by their atomic numbers. Moseley has interested in Broek's table.
Moseley started to picture the Xray spectra of 12 elements that
take a sequel positions in the periodic table. These experiments
led him to the common periodic table which known as the middlelength
periodic model in which the lanthanides and actinides are preferred
to be separated from the rest of the table.
Discussion
Recently, the researchers had new thoughts to present the periodic
table by various forms as onedimensional pyramid developed by
Jensen at Sensinaty University [2]. However there are other trends
to make a periodic table for the compounds instead of elements.
All these trials were good to describe and classify the elements
that have been discovered [39]. When we thought to make a model,
we noticed that in the regular periodic table the first period
always consist of two element, the second and the third periods
of eight elements, the fourth and the fifth periods of eighteen
elements and the sixth and the seventh periods of thirtytwo elements.
This means that the digit repeated twice in each period except
the first one in which the two elements are not repeated. Also
the digits in every period are doubles of squares. Where, the
second and third periods can be considered as a double of a square
its length is two, the fourth and fifth periods can be considered
as a double of a square its length is three, lastly the sixth
and seventh periods can be considered as a double of a square
its length is four. Thus the summation of all elements in all
periods is one hundred and eighteen elements. Considering the
electronic distribution theories of the elements among s, p, d
and f subshells, it is noticed that the number of the elements
increases by six on moving from s to p, by ten on moving from
p to d and by fourteen on moving from d to f subshells. From
this analysis, one can represent the periodic table as shown in
Figure 1.
This table as a whole constitutes twoamphitheater pyramids facing each other as in Figure 2.
By this way the elements at which the
cubes meet are the selements (interior) then pelements then
delements, and the f elements at last (exterior).
The characteristics of this suggested table could be summarized
in the following points:
Thus the coordinates in X and Y directions will be fractions, 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, and 7/2. Beside the Z coordinate the X and Y coordinates for s, p, d and f elements taking into consideration the electronic capacities (the superscript number) are according to Table 1.
Table 1: The X and Y coordinates representing the position of the element in the twoamphitheater pyramids periodic table structure.
Subshell  x  y 
































































































It is noticed that X and Y coordinates are in agree with the electronic capacity of every subshell, s, p, d and f. In case of s subshell the value of X and Y coordinates doesn't exceed 1/2 where in p case the value doesn't exceed 3/2, in d case the value doesn't exceed 5/2 and in f case the value doesn't exceed 7/2. We all know that the orbital numbers in every case are doubles of the mentioned values and the number of electrons that could be accommodated in every subshell is the result of multiplying the mentioned values by four which is the smallest square after one. The numerical values of X, Y and Z coordinates may used to explore mathematical relation between the element position and its properties.
References
1 J.W. van Spronsen, The Periodic System of The Chemical Elements: A History of The First Hundred Years, Elsevier (1969).
2 W.B. Jensen, Classification, Symmetry and The Periodic Table,
Computing and Mathematics with Applications, 112, 487 (1989).
3 M. Akeroyd, Predictions, Retrodictions and The Periodic Table,
Foundations of Chemistry, 5,85 (2003).
4 W. R. Taylor et al, A Periodic Table for Protein Structure,
Chemtracts, 15,735 (2002).
5 L. Doyle, The periodic Table of my Mountainside, Appalachian
Journal, 29, 414 (2002).
6 S. Moroimoto, A Periodic Table for Genatic Codes, Journal
of Mathematical Chemistry, 32, 159 (2002).
7 R. Tonelli et al, Chua's Periodic Table, International
Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering,
12, 1451 (2002).
8 A. Anders, A Periodic Table of Ion ChargeState Distributions
Observed in the Transition Region Between Vacuum Sparks and Vacuum
Arcs, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 29, 393 (2001).
9 C. Louk, Science: Discovering the Periodic Table of Elements,
School Library Media Activities Monthly, 18, 14 (2001).
Sites on the web referring to the different forms of the periodic table:
http://periodictable.com
http://jeries.rihani.com/symmetry
http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2003/02/18_table.shtml
http://chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu/periodic/stowetable.html
http://chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu/periodic/spiraltable.html
http://chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu/periodic/triangletable.html
http://chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu/periodic/giguere.html
http://chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu/periodic/tarantola.html
http://chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu/periodic/filling.html
http://chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu/periodic/foldedtable.html
http://chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu/periodic/styles.html
http://www.chemicool.com